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1st year computer notes chapter 5


1st year computer notes chapter 5
Fill in the blanks with the correct words:
1 = Arithmetic and Logic unit , 2 = mass memory or auxiliary memory , 3 = periodic charge , 4 = reprogrammed , 5 = file , 6 = Optical character recognition, 7 = sequential , 8 = write once read many , 9 = microphone , 10 = faster .
1st year computer notes chapter 5 MCQS end.

Short And Long Questions

Question 1 Answer.
processor: It is the most important part of computer, It performs processing or computation and control other parts. Is is also called CPU (Central Processor Unit). Processor or CPU consists of the following four parts.
Cache Memory

ALU: ALU stand for Arithmetic and Logic unit. Is the part of processor that performs processing or various operations such as arithmetic operations, comparisions and logical opearations. Arithmetic operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication, division etc. Comparisons or relational operations include less than, greater than, equal to, less or equal to, greateror equal to, not equal to. Logical operations include AND, OR, NOT operations.

CU: CU stands for Control Unit. It monitors and controls the other parts of computer through timing and control signals. In this way it behaves similar to humun nervous system.

Processor Registers: These are storage location inside the processor that hold/store data temporarily for processing. They have very fast speed.

Cache Memory: It is a small amount of memory or storage inside the processor. It is faster than main memory but slower than processor’s registers. It holds the data which are frequently required for processing. the main purpose of cache memory is to eliminate the speed difference between main memory and processor or processor’s registers.

Question 2 Answer.
Types of RAM: There are two types of RAM
SRAM (Static RAM)
DRAM (Dynamic RAM)

SRAM (Static RAM): SRAM is the combination of special circuits called flip-flops that store binary digits. SRAM holds it contents as long as powered supply to it.
SRAM is faster than DRAM, however it is more expensive. SRAM is also smaller in size than DRAM i-e it can store small amount of data as comapred to DRAM.

DRAM (Dynamic RAM): Is is the combination of cells that stores data as charge on capacitors. The presence of a charge on a capicator represents binary digit ‘1’ where as the absense of a charge represents bianry ‘0’.
DRAM needs periodic refreshing because capicators have natural tendency to discharge.
DRAM is slower than SRAM, however it is cheaper and having more storage capacity than SRAM.

Question 3 Answer.
Types of ROM: Some common types of ROM are as under:
Flash Memory

PROM: PROM stands for ‘Programmable Read Only Memory’. PROM is a non-volatile memory. It can be rewritten electrically only once after the orignal chip fibricaton. Special equipments are required for the rewriting process. PROM is less expensive.

EPROM: EPROM stands for ‘Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory’. Data can be rewritten more than once to EPROM electrically. But before a write process all the memory cells are erased by exposing them to ultravoilet radiations for 20 minutes. EPROM is expensive than PROM.

EEPROM: EEPROM stands for ‘Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory’. EEPROM can be rewritten more than once electrically. but before a write operation those bytes of EEPROM are erased electrically which needs rewriting. So the whole EEPROM is not erased for a write operation. EEPROM is not erased for a write operation.
EEPROM is more expensive than EPROM. It is also less dense, supporting fewer bits per chip.

Flash Memory: It can be rewitten or reprogrammed with high speed. It lies between EPROM and EEPROM in both cost and functionality. Like EPROM, it uses electrical erasing technology. The entire Flash Memory can be erased in one or few seconds which is much faster than EPROM. Here block of memory can be erased rather than entire memeory chip. However it doesn’t provide byte level erasure.
Question 4 Answer.
Printer: Printer is an output device that produces hard copy. By ahrd copy mean output in printed form on some paper. Hard copy is permanenet.

Types of printer: Printers is divided into two group one is called Impact printers and the other is Non Impact printers.

Impact printers: These printers have slow speed due to the slow mechanical movement of printing head. They are printing by striking the ribbon against a paper. Therefore they produce musch noise while printing.
The big advantage of impact printers is that they generate carbon copies.

Impact printers are diveded into two types:
Chracter printers
Line printers

Chracter printers: Chracter printers are slower than line printers. They print a single chracter at a time. They can print at the rate of 30 to 300 chracters per second. The main advanatge of chracter printer is that they cheaper. Example of character printers are:
Dot matrix
Daisy wheel

Line printers: these printers prints a complete line at a time. Therefore they are faster than character printers . A typical line printers prints 2500 lines per minute. Example of Line printers are:
Drum printers
Chain printers

Non-Impact Printers: These printers are based on latest technology such as laser, thermal inkjet, optical and Magnetic Electostatic Technologies. There is no mechanical movement of printing head, and thus they do not produce noise while printing. They are quiet printers.
Non-Impact Printers are high speed printers. the main draw back of these printers is they can’t generate carbon copies. Example of Non-Impact Printers are:
Laser printers
Inkjet printers
Thermal printers
Drop on demand printers.

1st year computer notes chapter 5 short and long questions end.
Back to previous chapter 4 .

Note: Main Memory and Secondary Memory are discussed in details in chapter 1 so please saw these two topic from there we didn’t include these two topic in this chapter again thank you.

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